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Article: Table of the sixteen note names in Karnatic music

 
By Haresh Bakshi
 
 
Note# Karnatic name Karnatic symbol Hindustani name Hindustani symbol Western name
1 Shadja Sa S Shadja Sa S Tonic -- say, C
2 Shuddha Rishabha Ri1 R1 Komala Rishabha Re komala r Minor Second Db
3 ChatuHshruti Rishabha Ri2 R2 Shuddha Rishabha Re shuddha R Major Second D
4 ShaTshruti Rishabha Ri3 R3 Komala Gandhara Ga komala g Minor Third D#
5 Shuddha gandhara Ga1 G1 Shuddha Rishabha Re shuddha R Major Second D
6 Sadharana Gandhara Ga2 G2 Komala Gandhara Ga komala g Minor Third Eb
7 Antara Gandhara Ga3 G3 Shuddha Gandhara Ga shuddha G Major Third E
8 Shuddha Madhyama Ma1 M1 Shuddha Madhyama Ma shuddha m Perfect Fourth F
9 Prati Madhyama Ma2 M2 Teevra Madhyama Ma teevra M Augmented Fourth F#
10 Panchama P Panchama P Perfect Fifth G
11 Shuddha Dhaivata Dha1 D1 Komala Dhaivata Dha komala d Minor Sixth Ab
12 ChatuHshruti Dhaivata Dha2 D2 Shuddha Dhaivata Dha shuddha D Major Sixth A
13 ShaTshruti Dhaivata Dha3 D3 Komala Nishada Ni komala n Minor Seventh Bb
14 Shuddha Nishada Ni1 N1 Shuddha Dhaivata Dha shuddha D Major Sixth A
15 Kaishiki Nishada Ni2 N2 Komala Nishada Ni komala n Minor Seventh Bb
16 Kakali Nishada Ni3 N3 Shuddha Nishada Ni shuddha N Major Seventh B
Table 2: The SIXTEEN note names in Karnatic music

Thus, we have Ri 2 = Ga 1; Ri 3 = Ga 2; Dha 2 = Ni 1; and Dha 3 = Ni 2.

There are sixteen names for the the twelve notes, for the following reasons:

In a raga, 1. When Ri 1 and Ri 2 occur consecutively, Ri 2 is sung as Ga 1
2. When Ga 2 and Ga 3 occur consecutively, Ga 2 is sung as Ri 3
3. When Dha 1 and Da 2 occur consecutively, Dha 2 is sung as Ni 1
4. When Ni 2 and Ni 3 occur consecutivesly, Ni 2 is sung as Da 3

Another method of nomenclature is as under:

Karnatik
Symbol
Alternate
Nomenclature
S S
R1 Ra
R2 Ri
R3 Ru
G1 Ga
G2 Gi
G3 Gu
M1 Ma
M2 Mi
P P
D1 Dha
D2 Dhi
D3 Dhu
N1 Na
N2 Ni
N3 Nu
Table 2a: Another method of nomenclature

2003/11/27

 

 

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